In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Saudi Arabia in Flux: Saudi Arabian Foreign Policy: As Obama himself noted, [End Page ] The competition between the Saudis and the Iranians — which has helped to feed proxy wars and chaos in Syria and Iraq and Yemen — requires us to say to our friends as well as to the Iranians that they need to find an effective way to share the neighborhood and institute some sort of cold peace.
Powered by Google Continuing our practice of featuring articles by promising young scholars we take a close look at Hezbollah. During these times of turmoil in the region, it is a particularly appropriate subject.
In this research, the writer examines the organization, its links to Iran and its propensity for violent struggle to achieve its ends. Furthermore, identifying the source of asymmetric violence is the first step towards its eradication.
Asymmetric violence or guerrilla warfare is the structural inverse of conventional warfare, which is acted out between large, organized, military forces in open battle on a linear front.
Distinct from conventional warfare, other types of prolonged military campaigns are unconventional, including sub-conventional and supra-conventional nuclear warfare.
As a sub-state actor, Hezbollah commits acts of violence under the rubric of sub-conventional warfare. Underlying similarities in the structure and function of these groups makes the study of any one an inherently useful rubric to study any other. At a time when the United States and its allies are currently embroiled in campaigns opposing unconventional actors, investigating the causes of asymmetric violence would benefit any political scientist or policy maker interested in state security.
Hezbollah portrays itself as a resistance and social movement that speaks for the disenfranchised of Lebanon. Created with information gathered from an Israel Non-Governmental Organization focusing on intelligence and terrorism. As is evident in Figure 1, underneath the Advisory Council are several subordinate councils known as functional councils: Every four years, Lebanese vote on members of parliament.
The seats are further subdivided along sectarian lines, and voters cast their ballots for every available seat, regardless of sect.
Therefore, candidates must appeal to constituents across sectarian lines. Both camps are antagonistic towards the American and Israeli military but take different approaches to counter that potential threat.
Instead, Iran is governed by a system of clerics and non-religious elites. As outlined in Figure 2, the Iranian Constitution gave executive, legislative, and judicial powers to the highest ranking Shiite cleric known as the Ayatollah but did not bestow unchecked power on him either, since the Constitution also created an elected president, an elected parliament known as the Majlis, and an elected Assembly of Experts.
Although Supreme Leader Khamenei is the most powerful official, he could be overruled if the majority of the oligarchs wished. A change in any one of these structures — that is if a shift occurred in any of these governing bodies from one political faction to the other — might lead to a change in the articulation of Iranian foreign policy.
For example, the reformist school of thought dominated Iranian local councils inbecame a majority in the Majlis inand re-elected reformist President Khatami in The conservatives, however, maintained control over the non-elected offices during this time; these institutions include the Council of Guardians, the Council of Experts, and the Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei, who succeeded Ayatollah Khomeini, installed after the Islamic Revolution.
This is especially important for foreign policy since the reformists and conservatives have different interpretations of how best to reify a stable goal of protecting Iranian interests and thwarting Western influence in the region.
Nonetheless, theories explaining terrorist violence are useful in an analysis of Hezbollah. While the theorists below speak predominantly of terrorism, their theories are useful tools to understand asymmetric violence more generally since it is not necessary for the victims to be non-combatants for the following analyses to retain their salience.We use these theories to introduce a new conceptual model of the importance of territory for terrorism 10 that contrasts a group’s Sovereignty Claims over Territory (SCOT), which corresponds with the ultimate territorial aims of the group, with its Effective Control of Territory (ECOT), which relates to the ability of an organization to exert influence over a particular territory.
Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.
Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves.
Thankfully, there is an instance on page 20 where Neil feels a "fierce pride" that someone wanting him makes his mother twitch. This is a rare instance where Neil focuses more on being homosexual than being a good son to his parents.
During the final years of the presidency of Barack Obama, relations between the United States and Saudi Arabia have become increasingly fractious, with President Obama referring to a number of Gulf states, including Saudi Arabia, as “free riders reluctant to put skin in the game.”.
Russia–United States relations refers to the bilateral relationship between the United States and feelthefish.com United States and Russia maintain diplomatic and trade relations. The relationship was generally warm under the Russian President Boris Yeltsin (–99) until the NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the spring of , and has since deteriorated significantly.
relationship between emotional intelligence and sales performance. It would reveal how gender and tenure impacts emotional intelligence. It was also proposed that there would be a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and tenure.
It was also anticipated that there would be a difference in scores between the female and male participants.